The following descriptions of some of AMWA's workshops provide an overview of the certificate program. Workshops are typically offered at AMWA's annual conference; some workshops are offered at chapter conferences. All workshops are 3 hours. Not all AMWA workshops are offered at each annual conference, therefore this listing is not an exact catalog of all AMWA workshop offerings which vary from year to year.
AMWA currently offers certificate programs in Essential Skills, Business, Composition and Publication, Concepts in Science and Medicine, and Regulatory and Research.Core, Science Fundamentals, and Advanced workshops are also offered for people who were previously enrolledi n those programs.
The workshop descriptions are listed in groups and the acronym immediately following the workshop title denotes the workshop specialty area.
Essential Skills (ES)Some workshops may be applied to more than1 certificate; those workshops are identified by the appropriate acronyms separated by a forward slash (/) following the workshop title.
Composition and Publication (CP)
Concepts in Science and Medicine (SM)
Regulatory and Research (RR)
For people previously enrolled in the Core, Science Fundamentals, or Advanced certificate programs:
(EW) = Core Editing/Writing
(ED) = Core Educators
(FL) = Core Freelance
(PH) = Core Pharmaceutical
(PRAM) = Core Public Relations/Advertising/Marketing
(G) = Core General
(SG) = Science--General
(SBS) = Science--Body Systems
(SDT) = Science--Diagnostics and Therapies
(SDS) = Science--Disease States
(ADV) = Advanced
ESSENTIAL SKILLS (ES)
Basic Grammar I (ES/G)
Thorough knowledge of parts of speech is truly basic to good writing and editing. This workshop, originally part of Basic Grammar & Usage, focuses entirely on parts of speech and their use in the sentence. Types of nouns and pronouns, verb tense, pronouns and case, phrases and clauses (with special emphasis on verbals and on noun, adjective, and adverb clauses), and the types of sentences are some of the primary topics that the workshop covers. Information in this workshop is, in essence, basic to every other AMWA workshop. If you took Basic Grammar & Usage for credit, you can still take this workshop for credit if you need additional grammar review. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Basic Grammar II and Usage (ES/G)
Customary practice, particularly with respect to language, can sometimes lead to unclear writing, especially when the writer is tempted to use informal or nonstandard English. This workshop, originally part of Basic Grammar & Usage, builds on Basic Grammar I by offering a review of additional grammatical topics and discussion of some aspects of English usage. Correcting dangling or misplaced modifiers, using who or whom and which or that, making subjects agree with verbs, writing clear comparisons, and choosing the correct word are topics addressed in this workshop. If you took Basic Grammar & Usage but believe you could use a more thorough review of these topics, you can also receive credit for taking this workshop. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Bibliographic Resources for Medical Communicators (ES/G)
This introduction to bibliographic resources in the health sciences will enable participants to become "information literate." The primary focus will be on types of bibliographic literature and ways to find and access this information. PubMed and NLM Gateway searches will also be analyzed and discussed, as well as integration of database searching with online search engines. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Effective Paragraphing (ES/G)
This lecture and discussion workshop provides novices and moderately experienced writers and editors with some basic paragraphing techniques for achieving clarity, readability, and desired emphasis. The objective is the development of a systematic approach to analyzing and correcting text. Options for arranging paragraphs and using transitions will be demonstrated in this review workshop. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 4 HOURS.
Effectively Searching Online Databases (ES/EW/FL)
This slide lecture and live Internet demonstration are intended for moderately experienced to more advanced Web users. The workshop leader will focus on the use of online databases, demonstrating the effective use of PubMed and Gateway from the National Library of Medicine as true databases rather than "search engines." In particular, emphasis will be placed on the use of advanced features such as the MeSH database and LinkOut to other databases or full-text resources when available. Creating and using personalized settings and search filters for these resources will also be covered. Interactive discussion and instruction-by-example will give participants an improved understanding of online search strategies and a helpful list of Web-based information resources. If you usually search PubMed by typing in a single term in the search box and hitting Go, then this class is for you. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Elements of Medical Terminology (ES/G/SG)
This workshop, which will consist mainly of lecture and exercises, is designed primarily for beginning medical writers with little or no medical background. Participants will learn how to understand the meanings of medical terms by identifying Latin and Greek word components. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Essential Ethics for Medical Communicators (ES) 
This workshop will provide a basic overview of ethical considerations with a focus on the AMWA Code of Ethics. The workshop comprises a homework assignment, an interactive lecture, and a class exercise—all designed to address the variety of ethical situations that occur in medical communication. Participants will be divided into small groups to discuss the case studies submitted as homework assignments, name the ethical problem, identify the involved stakeholders and their perspectives, debate alternative decisions, and use role-playing to present to the entire group. This workshop is suitable for both entry-level and experienced medical communicators. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME:3 HOURS.
Outlining for Writers and Editors (ES/EW/FL)
In this workshop, which is designed for intermediate-level writers and editors, participants will learn to use outlining for writing and editing medical texts. Topics will include the "what, why, and how" of formal outlining and its usefulness in gaining consensus on planned content, overcoming mental blocks, and reorganizing drafts. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Punctuation for Clarity and Style (ES/G)
Designed for communicators whose professional writing experience and grammatical savvy range from minimal to moderate, this discussion of the most useful punctuation rules and options—from the serial comma to the dash—will focus on emphasis, variety, and consistency. Medically oriented examples, including many sent in by participants, will be discussed. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Sentence Structure and Patterns (ES/G)
Through lecture and examination of flawed and improved sentence examples, participants will consider the main elements of sentence construction, accommodation to the reading process, and the management of emphasis—all with a view toward matching structure to purpose. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Statistics for Medical Writers and Editors (ES/G/SG)
This workshop is designed for participants who have little or no background in statistics. The workshop leaderwill cover elementary statistical concepts needed to understand medical and scientific articles, including types of variables, levels of measurement, summary statistics, estimation and confidence intervals, and t test. Emphasis will be placed on understanding statistical presentations and on reporting statistical information—not on calculations or mathematical explanations. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–5 HOURS.
Tables and Graphs (ES/G)
The workshop leader will cover definitions and uses of tables and graphs, as well as guidelines for preparing and editing them. The focus of the workshop, designed for the beginner, is the preparation of tables and graphs that are usable, that communicate, and that are appropriate for the situation. Participation is encouraged as we evaluate problematic tables and graphs. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME:3 HOURS.
The Internet: How and Where to Find the Information You Seek (ES/EW/FL)
This slide lecture and live Internet demonstration are intended for beginning to moderately experienced Web users. After a brief review of Web browser commands and features, URLs and hyperlinks, and Internet protocols, focus will shift to the use of the Web as a research tool. The workshop leader will demonstrate the effective use of Web search engines and other resources and will problem-solve common issues like narrowing down search results and sorting out useful information from commercial or possibly fraudulent content. Interactive discussion and instruction-by-example will give participants an improved understanding of online search strategies and a helpful list of Web-based information resources. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Business Aspects of a Freelance Career (B/FL) 
This workshop is intended for those who want to begin or have recently begun a freelance business. The workshop leader will provide a realistic look at the business aspects of self-employment. Issues covered include setting up a business, marketing services, finding clients, setting fees, preparing contracts, keeping records, and dealing with taxes. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Business Ethics of Medical Communicators (B) 
This workshop provides an overview of ethical considerations involving the business aspects of medical communication in different work settings, including both large and small organizations as well as sole proprietorships. This workshop comprises homework assignment, an interactive lecture, and a class exercise. Participants will be divided into small groups, each of which will be given one of the case studies submitted as part of the homework. Groups will be asked to name the ethical situation, identify the stakeholders, and their perspectives, debate potential decisions, and present their results to the entire group through roll play.
APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2-3 HOURS
NOTE: This workshop is required to complete a Business specialty certificate.
Coaching Skills for Leaders (B) 
This workshop is appropriate for anyone in a supervisory, management, or executive position or someone expecting to take on such responsibilities. The coaching techniques learned in this workshop can also be used by those in a subordinate role to enhance communication with a supervisor and to better support their peers. Expertise and experience communicating medical and scientific information contribute to making a successful medical writer, but are often not sufficient for strong and effective leadership. One of the most effective leadership skills involves coaching others’ behaviors and thinking. In this hands-on workshop, participants will increase their self-awareness as a leader, learn about and practice 3 key coaching behaviors, practice basic coaching skills, and design an action plan for continued development and practice. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Creative Process in Pharmaceutical Advertising and Promotion (B/PH/PRAM)
The workshop leader will provide an overview of various types of pharmaceutical advertising and promotion, including print, television, direct mail, sales aids, and the Internet. The workshop will then become a "war room" as participants immerse themselves in the creative process to formulate a brand personality, advertising platform, and creative strategy. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Educating Sales Representatives About Science and Medicine (B/FL/PH)
In this workshop, moderately experienced and advanced writers will gain an introduction to the world of pharmaceutical sales-training texts. Through lecture and discussion, participants will learn who pharmaceutical sales representatives are, what they do, and what they need to know about medicine and science. Attendees will also learn the structure of sales-training texts, strategies for selecting content, and means of obtaining freelance work. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Introduction to the Medical Device Industry (B/PH)
The workshop leader will cover the medical device industry, opportunities for medical writers in the industry, and the US and global regulatory environments that govern medical devices. Topics will also include the major market segments; products and therapeutic indications; specific job opportunities in the regulatory, clinical, and marketing departments; and the types of projects that may be assigned to employees or vendors. The workshop is designed for anyone with an interest in medical devices. The goal is to provide the participant with an overview of the industry, job and freelance opportunities in medical device companies, and a streamlined version of the regulatory environments in which these companies function. (Previously titled Writing for the Medical Device Industry.) APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Launching a Freelance Writing Career (B/FL)
The workshop leader will explore strategies for starting a freelance writing or editing career. Included will be a review of the myths about freelance work and discussion of the advantages as well as disadvantages of a full-time freelance career. Participants will learn how to find clients, market their skills, prepare contracts, estimate project time, and set fees. Query letters will be covered briefly. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Making Effective Presentations (B/ED/PRAM) 
Through lecture and discussion, participants will learn to select appropriate media and instructional materials, determine audience needs, and focus content for maximum impact. An introduction to the use of PowerPoint for developing presentations will be included. The workshop is appropriate both for novices and for those with some experience. Please come prepared to give a 5- to 10-minute presentation during the workshop; time permitting, all participants will be called upon to give their presentations. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Project Management for Medical Communicators(B/PH)
This workshop is for pharmaceutical writers who have some experience managing a large number of overlapping projects. Participants will gain familiarity with project management concepts and terminology, explore the applicability of project management to writers, and gain experience answering some real-life questions pertaining to project management. the workshop leader will use a combination of lecture, group exercises, and group discussion. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2-3 HOURS.
Public Relations Materials and Techniques (B/FL/PRAM)
Novices in public relations will learn how to develop communication goals and strategies, identify and target the audience, and determine the most effective methods of communicating with that audience. The workshop leader will cover the basics of writing press releases, features, tips, and public announcements. Emphasis will be on low-budget, creative projects, with examples from health care and medicine. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
COMPOSITION AND PUBLICATION (CP)
Creating Effective Poster Presentations (CP/EW/PH)
This interactive workshop is designed for beginning to intermediate poster creators, and the leader will cover everything from planning to production. Participants will learn about creating a poster from an abstract, developing structured versus unstructured content, selecting effective graphic presentation methods, and dealing with production issues. Attendees will evaluate sample posters and suggest improvements for layout and content. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Essentials of Copyediting (CP/EW)
This workshop is intended for beginning copyeditors and the leader will focus on basic copyediting skills. Copyediting is the process in which a manuscript is prepared for publication by revisions that ensure clarity, accuracy, and consistency. Participants will learn the elements, principles, and processes involved in copyediting for scientific and medical publications. Specific exercises will enable participants to identify typical copy problems and compare various editorial choices. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Ethical Standards in Medical Publication (CP/EW/PH)
In this workshop, intended for novices and moderately experienced writers and editors, the leader will examine ethical issues in scientific publication. Participants will discuss essential publication guidelines and existing ethical standards while highlighting controversial and unresolved issues. Authors' editors, journal editors, and writers who participate in the creation of manuscripts often have conflicting perspectives on authorship, duplicate publication, conflict of interest, and peer review; these perspectives will be examined. (Previously offered as Ethics of Authorship & Editorship.) APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Improving Comprehension: Theories and Research Findings (CP/ED/EW)
This workshop is for writers and editors interested in the scientific study of written communication. The workshop leader will summarize results of research on several conventions that promote or inhibit the readability of a text. Several theories of composition will be presented, and their usefulness to medical writers will be discussed. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Journal Submissions Other Than Research Articles (CP/EW)
This workshop is intended mainly for novice through moderately experienced editors. Through a combination of lecture and group discussions, participants in this workshop will explore the basics of writing and editing journal submission other than research articles. The workshop leader will discuss case reports, techniques papers, and letters to the editor. Review articles will also be discussed briefly. Content and organization will be emphasized. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
Making Effective Slides (CP/EW)
This workshop is designed for beginners and those with some slide-making experience. Participants will work through the ground rules for writing and designing medical slides, critique examples of good and bad slides, touch on production concerns, and evaluate slides made from the homework. The workshop leader will not include instructions on using PowerPoint software. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Medical Journalism: From Choosing a Topic Through Polishing the Piece (CP/EW/FL)
This workshop is intended mainly for newcomers to medical journalism. Through presentation and discussion, the leader will explore the basics of writing articles on medical topics for magazines, newspapers, and other publications for general readers. Aspects to be addressed will include choosing topics, gathering and evaluating information, and crafting and refining the piece. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
Organizing the Medical Paper (CP/EW/FL)
This basic workshop is designed for authors, authors' editors, and journal editors. The workshop leader will focus on the principles of organizing and preparing original research reports for publication. Lecture, discussion, and exercises will be used to help participants analyze the function and content of each section of a medical paper. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Plain Language (CP/EW)
In this basic workshop, writers and editors with little experience in preparing health information materials for readers with limited literacy skills will learn about writing plainly for this audience (at reading levels for grades 4 through 8). After a discussion of the principles of plain language, participants will practice writing plainly in a variety of exercises. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Preparing CME Materials: Concepts, Strategies, and Ethical Issues (CP/EW/FL) 
Beginning to advanced medical writers are often involved in the preparation of educational-needs assessments, learning objectives, and content for continuing medical education (CME) activities. Writers need to have a working knowledge of how and why CME is developed, the main stakeholders in the process, and the roles of sponsors and supporters. In view of the ethical issues that may arise with the increasing role of pharmaceutical companies in providing CME grant support, writers need to be familiar with the guidelines set by the American Council on Continuing Medical Education, the American Medical Association, and other organizations. These important topics will be conveyed through lecture, practical examples, case studies, and discussion. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
The workshop leader of this introductory workshop will focus on the differences between proofreading and copyediting, the definition and limits of proofreading, and standard proofreading methods and procedures. Participants will learn what proofreaders need to know to do the job and how to determine what to correct, query, or ignore. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 1–2 HOURS.
Sentence Diagramming for Clarity and Practicality (CP/G )
This workshop is designed for novice or moderately experienced participants. The workshop leaders will review the basics of sentence diagramming. Particularly helpful for visual learners, diagramming can also contribute to logical thought patterns and sentence construction by making visible the relationships between parts of the sentence and indicating where emphasis lies within the sentence. This workshop is designed to develop or refresh diagramming and grammar skills and to show the practical benefits of sentence diagramming. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Using Classical Rhetoric Principles to Enhance Medical Writing (CP) 
Classical rhetorical principles and the art of persuasion are increasingly being acknowledged as integral components in medical writing. Through a blend of theory and practice, participants will learn how to identify rhetorical principles in medical writing and understand how persuasive tools are essential for meeting the needs of readers within a variety of medical writing contexts. Hands-on exercises will help participants learn how to apply the rhetorical and persuasive techniques in a specific setting and for a specific audience. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Writing Abstracts (CP/EW/PH)
This workshop is intended for medical editors and writers with up to 5 years' experience. The workshop leader will present an overview of the purpose and structure of the medical or scientific abstract, with emphasis on abstracts prepared for publications. Registrants will evaluate and write abstracts using precourse materials and workshop exercises. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 1–2 HOURS.
Writing and Copyediting the Multimedia Project (CP/EW/FL)
For writers who are new to multimedia projects, this case-study presentation will incorporate lecture and group discussion to outline the steps in developing a computer-based multimedia training program. The main focus will be writing and editing for the screen—not programming! Storyboards, vendors, and troubleshooting will be discussed. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Writing and Designing Materials for Patient Education (CP/EW/PRAM)
Through lecture and discussion, writers with little or no experience in writing for patients will work through the "what, who, and how" of a patient-education piece: planning, research, writing, design, production, and evaluation. Participants will critique sample booklets and review the homework. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Writing and Editing NIH Grants (CP/EW/FL)
This lecture and group discussion will provide a thorough framework for both new and experienced biomedical editors to make the grant-preparation process less harried. NIH applications are the topic of this workshop. Writing and editing exercises to craft key portions of an application and samples of "winners" that were funded will be included. Private (eg, foundation) proposals will not be addressed in this workshop. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Writing for Video (CP/EW/PRAM)
The workshop leader will focus on writing for video/CD-ROM, an increasingly popular tool for medical education. Writing for this medium requires simultaneous use of the left brain and right brain; writers have to get their point across verbally and visually to hold viewers' attention. Guidelines will be provided on how to create effective presentations: conceptual development, scriptwriting style, production commands, and some of the special interactive features of CD-ROMs. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Writing Medical Indexes (CP/EW)
This interactive workshop is intended for moderately experienced, advanced-level writers, as well as editors or anyone who wants to learn about the subject. Participants will learn how to evaluate indexes and what to include in effective indexes. Discussion will include preliminary decisions and how to prepare for index writing. Group activities will include markup and initial indexing of a sample text, followed by index editing. Final discussion will review challenges unique to indexing medical documents. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
CONCEPTS IN SCIENCE AND MEDICINE (SM)
Basic Cell Biology (SM/EW/PH/SG)
This workshop is suitable for the beginning and moderately experienced writer or editor and will offer basic knowledge of cell biology through lecture and discussion. The basic form and function of cells, including the cell membrane, organelles, and cell division, will be covered and will prepare participants for more advanced physiology workshops. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Basic Immunology (SM/SBS)
Immunology is the study of mechanisms that defend the body against microorganisms, remove foreign material, and maintain body integrity. Advances in our understanding of immunologic mechanisms have produced extraordinary health benefits, such as immunization against disease and successful organ transplantation. On the other hand, immune reactions can produce pathological changes resulting in allergy, autoimmune diseases, and rejection of tissue and organ transplants. The workshop leader will present basic concepts in immunology; the workshop is intended for medical communicators with little or no background in this area. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Basic Laboratory Methods in the Biological Sciences (SM) 
This workshop is aimed at beginning and moderately experienced science editors and writers. Through lecture and discussion, the workshop leader will explain a number of basic laboratory methods that are used in biological sciences research. The leader will review key terms and there will be a brief discussion of useful resources. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Basics of Human Anatomy and Physiology (SM/EW/PH/SG)
This workshop is suitable for the beginning and moderately experienced writer or editor. The workshop leader will offer basic knowledge of human anatomy and physiology through lecture and discussion. Organization of the human body, from molecular to system levels, will be covered. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Basics of Molecular Biology (SM/EW/PH/SG)
Aimed at beginning and moderately experienced science editors and writers, the lecture and discussion of this workshop will help participants understand basic molecular biology concepts about DNA, RNA, and protein structure. Key terms and commonly used techniques will be reviewed, as will useful writers' resources. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Chemical Equilibria in Physiology (SM/SG)
Material in this workshop is aimed at those without a science background, and will be presented in a mixed format of lecture, guided inquiry, and demonstrations. Attendees will learn about chemical equilibria in terms of both a molecular description and a mathematical treatment of the topic. After gaining an understanding of how these reactions behave, participants will engage in further discussions that will include physiological manifestations of equilibrium reactions, including diffusion, osmosis, acid-base chemistry, and the delivery of oxygen to the tissues as mediated by hemoglobin. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 1–2 HOURS.
Communicating Results of Routine Clinical Laboratory Tests (SM/EW/PH/SDT)
Previously titled Understanding and Reporting the Results of Routine Clinical Laboratory Tests, the workshop is appropriate for inexperienced to moderately experienced writers. The workshop leader will cover basic concepts pertaining to laboratory terminology, including the components of a complete blood count and serum chemistry profile and their relationship to organ systems, with the goal of clear and concise communication of laboratory findings. Reviewing laboratory summary tables and data listings, as well as correlating test results to adverse events for summaries in regulatory documents are also covered. Although application in regulatory writing will be emphasized, the concepts covered are also applicable to journal articles and other forms of medical writing. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Diseases of the Nervous System (SM/SDS)
Using a combination of lecture, demonstrations, and video, the workshop leader will cover the basic structure, organization, and functions of the nervous system. An overview of the signs and symptoms associated with disorders of the various components of the nervous system will also be discussed. Four common neurological diseases—epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke—will be highlighted, including their epidemiology, pathology, clinical signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments. (Previously presented as the noncredit workshop Topics in Clinical Neurology—Multiple Sclerosis, Epilepsy, and Parkinson's Disease.) APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Drug Interactions (SM/EW/PH/SDT)
Drug interactions can be beneficial as well as harmful. The workshop leader will address the hows and whys of drug interactions—good and bad, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms, basic explanations of key concepts of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and the role of genetics in drug interactions (pharmacogenomics). This is introductory information intended for writers and editors with no formal training in drug interactions or pharmacokinetics. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Ethics in Communicating Science and Medicine (SM)
This workshop provides an overview of ethical considerations for communicating medicine and science to patients, health care providers, and others. Research-and regulatory issues and publication-related issues will not be addressed because they are the focus of other workshops. This workshop comprises a homework assignment, an interactive lecture, and a class exercise. Participants will be divided into small groups, each of which will be given one of the case studies submitted as part of the homework. Groups will be asked to name the ethical situation, identify the stakeholders and their perspectives, debate potential decisions, and present their results to the entire group through role-play. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2-3 HOURS.
Evidence-Based Medicine for Medical Communicators (SM) 
This introduction to evidence-based medicine (EBM) is intended for medical communicators at any level who have an interest in EBM as it applies to critical appraisal of the medical literature, production of higher-quality medical documents, or job opportunities related to the EBM movement. The workshop will be taught through an informal lecture format with a group-learning activity and plenty of time for discussion. Topics will include what EBM is, the context in which it developed, how it is practiced, tools of EBM, study design, levels of evidence, bias, and the standards movement. Statistics associated with EBM will not be covered in depth. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Introduction to Basic Virology (SM) 
This workshop is intended for medical writers and editors with some biological background who want to improve their understanding of basic principles around the morphology, replication, and transmission of viruses. Previous background or some coursework in basic cell biology or molecular biology will be useful. The workshop leaders will review basic virus classifications, as well as several representative viruses that relate to clinical disease states, then focus on diagnostic tests used to identify viruses, antiviral therapies (vaccines vs antiviral medications), and mechanisms of viral resistance. Additional topics will include basic virus-host interactions, including key immune responses, principles around immune evasion, and oncogenic viruses in people. This workshop is appropriate for those who write for the public as well as those who write for medical and scientific readers. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Introduction to Cancer Biology (SM/SG)
This workshop is intended for beginning and moderately experienced writers and editors who have a basic understanding of cell biology, and will be taught through a combination of lecture and discussion. The basic structural characteristics of normal and cancer cells will be covered, as will the progression that normal cells must make to become malignant, including a variety of genetic alterations that confer malignancy. Several therapeutic approaches will be touched upon from the perspective of what this information tells us about the underlying biology of malignancy. Key terms and commonly used techniques will be discussed, as will useful Web-based cancer information resources. This workshop assumes a basic understanding of the principles of cell biology (eg, DNA structure and function, protein synthesis), therefore it is recommended that participants have previously taken the Basics of Cell Biology workshop (or equivalent). APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
Introduction to Cancer Pharmacology (SM) 
This workshop is intended for beginning and moderately experienced writers and editors who have a basic understanding of cell biology, and will be taught through a combination of lecture and discussion. The workshop leader will focus primarily on elucidating—in conceptual, high-level terms—the mechanisms of common cancer drugs on the market, examining how key differences between normal and malignant cells allow for targeted therapies. Background information including the history of discovery of each drug will be provided. This workshop assumes a basic understanding of the principles of cell biology (eg, cell cycle, DNA replication, signal transduction). It would be helpful for participants to have taken Basic Cell Biology or the Introduction to Cancer Biology workshop. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Introduction to Orthopedic Surgery (SM/SDT) 
Previously conducted as A Taste of Orthopedic Medicine (NC), this new credit workshop provides an introduction to the scope of orthopedic surgery, its subspecialties, and current "hot" topics in the field. The format will consist of lecture, discussion, and a "hands on" motor skills lab. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
Introduction to the Cardiovascular System (SM/SBS)
This workshop is designed for those without a science background. The workshop leader will present the basics of the structure and function (anatomy and physiology) of the cardiovascular system, including the heart, blood vessels, and the blood itself. Why is the circulation of blood so important? How does the heart do its job? What is blood's function, and what's it made of? Additional topics include the electrocardiogram, blood pressure, and various common terms related to the cardiovascular system. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Introduction to the Musculoskeletal System (SM/SBS)
Previously presented as a noncredit workshop, this workshop is designed for those without a science background. The workshop leader will focus on the basic structure and function of the musculoskeletal system, including muscle types and functions; bone formation, growth, and remodeling; and the structure and function of joints. The function of the musculoskeletal system will be explored using everyday examples, like getting out of bed and keyboarding (typewriting and piano playing). If time permits, the control processes needed for movement will be introduced and discussed. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Introduction to the Nervous System (SM/SBS) 
This workshop on the normal biology of the nervous system is intended for writers and editors without a formal science background, although some knowledge of cell biology would be helpful. The workshop leader will cover how the unique anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) of individual nerve cells allows them to form complex networks that process information. The gross anatomy of the nervous system and the functional circuits linking the nervous system to other organs will also be described. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Introduction to the Renal System (SM/SBS)
This workshop is designed for those without a science background. The workshop leader will present the basics of the structure and function of the renal system to help medical writers understand and write about topics involving the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Key anatomical terms and concepts that focus on normal physiological function will be reviewed. The interrelationships of the renal system with other relevant body systems will also be covered, including the effect on the body as a whole. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Pharmacokinetics in Clinical Practice (SM/EW/PH/SDT)
This introductory workshop is designed for the writer or editor who has not had formal pharmacokinetics training. The workshop leader will cover basic pharmacokinetics including the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination of drugs. Key terms and basic mathematical concepts will be explained in a primarily lecture format. Drug interactions, therapeutic drug monitoring, and pharmacogenetics, as related to pharmacokinetics, will also be discussed. The workshop will be conducted from the perspective of the clinical use of pharmacokinetics. It is not intended for regulatory, industrial, or academic writers and will not address pharmacokinetics used to fulfill regulatory requirements. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Primary Classes of Biological Macromolecules (SM) 
Although the body is composed of a vast assortment of molecules, there are 4 main types of molecules that are involved in nearly all biochemical reactions and present in biological structures: lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids. The workshop leader will describe the fundamental general chemistry of these 4 classes of biological molecules. Discussion will begin with a quick overview of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen; their placement on the periodic table; and the types of properties each donates to larger macromolecules in which they are present. Participants will then investigate the general properties of lipid, carbohydrate, protein, and nucleic acid structure and how the structures dictate biological function. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Principles of Epidemiologic Research: Beyond the Basics (SM/SG)
The workshop leader will cover the basic principles of chronic-disease epidemiology, including measures of disease frequency, common study designs, and issues of validity and precision. Attendees will learn the key features that distinguish observational research from experimental designs, as well as the basics of interpreting epidemiologic research within the context of medical communication. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Sex and Beyond: Fertilization and Early Development (SM/SG)
Ever wonder about the science behind human reproductive biology? Such fascinating questions are some of the oldest in science. Using slides and movies, the first half of this multimedia workshop will cover sperm and egg production, molecular mechanisms of fertilization, and how some fertilization mechanisms are studied in the laboratory. The second half will provide a broad overview of early human development, including the first cell divisions of embryogenesis, implantation, gastrulation, neurulation, and other key events up to end of gestation at 9 months. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
REGULATORY AND RESEARCH (RR)
Assessing and Communicating the Benefits and Risks of Medicine (RR) 
We balance benefits and risks for every activity in daily life. Regulators, drug developers, clinicians, patients, payers and other stakeholders attempt to apply benefit-risk (BR) assessments to medicines. Despite intuitive approaches, the formal evaluation of a medicine’s BR is a relatively new, continually emerging science. A common framework for assessing and communicating BR is quickly approaching. This course is designed to introduce participants to the concepts that underlie techniques to assess the BR of medicines and to apply this knowledge to ways writers can approach more effective BR communications with stakeholders.
APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS
Basics of Epidemiology (RR/EW/PH/SG)
Designed for experienced medical writers, this combination of lecture and group exercises is based on the principle that medical communicators have a key gatekeeper's role in ensuring the correct interpretation of scientific findings. Participants will be provided with the ABCs of data interpretation according to basic epidemiological concepts and research techniques. The focus will be on the critical appraisal of reported medical findings and the application of epidemiological tenets to improve the participant's writing. Measures of disease occurrence, research designs, and causality development will be discussed. The workshop leader will use examples from clinical medicine, public health, and pharmacoepidemiology. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
Basics of Health Care Compliance (RR/EW)
Regulatory compliance is no longer applicable only to the pharmaceutical industry. The health care industry is under increasing scrutiny and pressure to account for what it does with health care money and how it handles health care delivery. Various agencies are developing compliance program guidance specific to different types of health care entities ranging from clinical laboratories and pharmaceutical companies to hospices and physician practices. The workshop leader will focus on an in-depth review of the basic elements of a compliance program, emphasizing the strengths that medical writers can bring to this field and the employment opportunities that exist. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
The Electronic Common Technical Document (RR/PH)
This workshop is appropriate for regulatory/medical writers who have minimal or moderate experience in preparing documents for a pharmaceutical eCTD regulatory submission. The teaching style will be primarily lecture with an exercise and some opportunity for discussion. The workshop leader will focus on what writers need to know to support team efforts for preparing regulatory documents slated for investigational and new drug marketing applications. Topics for discussion will include associated regulations and guidelines, the structure and format of the eCTD, and best practices for writing the documents that comprise the submission. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 1.5–3 HOURS.
Ethics of Communicating Regulated Drug Development Activities (RR)
This workshop provides an overview of ethical considerations for communicating regulated drug development activities to scientists, regulatory authorities, health care providers, and others. This workshop will not address science-and-medicine issues or publication-related issues because they are addressed in other workshops. Topics relevant to regulated drug development activities include ethics in clinical and nonclinical trials, conflicts of interest (eg, financial, scientific), authorship of regulated documents, data management and archiving, plagiarism, privileged information, and collaboration. This workshop comprises a homework assignment, an interactive lecture, and a class exercise. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2-3 HOURS.
Fundamentals of Ethics and Practical Applications (RR)
Ethical considerations associated with conducting clinical research will be explored in this workshop intended for medical writers, editors, and researchers with some experience reviewing, analyzing, and communicating data-regulated therapeutic development activities. The workshop will consist of short presentations on relevant ethical issues with respect to therapeutic (drug, device, vaccine) clinical trials, and group discussions on major ethical considerations of some case studies. Topics include the importance of ethics in good clinical practice (GCP), the informed consent process and the challenges that may arise in developing countries, the infrastructure of ethics committees, and data safety monitoring committees. Throughout, the workshop will focus on the central ethical issue in clinical study conduct: to ensure subject safety and well-being. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME:2 HOURS.
Interventional and Observational Research Design (RR/EW/PH/SG)
This workshop, intended for beginning medical writers who are inexperienced in clinical research design, will cover research trial designs used in the two primary types of investigations conducted by pharmaceutical companies, interventional and observational trials. Basic study designs will be categorized, characterized, and contrasted. Examples from the medical literature will be used to offer insight into judging design strengths and shortcomings. Participants will critique prototypical studies. (Previously titled Biomedical Research Design.) APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Investigational New Drug Applications (RR/PH)
This workshop is intended for writers with little or no experience in preparing documents for regulatory applications. The leader will cover the essential components of an investigational new drug application, FDA regulations, and the reviewer's needs. Participants will also gain an understanding of the writer's contribution to the quality of an electronic submission. Requirements and available online sources will be included. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
Package Inserts (RR/PH)
This workshop is an introduction to the elements of preparing and reviewing a physician's package insert for a prescription drug. Participants will learn about the FDA regulations regarding objectives and content, the review process, and postmarketing revision of inserts. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Regulatory Aspects of the Drug Development Process (RR/PH)
In this workshop, designed for novices in the pharmaceutical industry, participants will learn about and discuss the drug development process with special emphasis given to regulatory documentation. Discussion will include a summary of the US, European, and International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) guidelines and regulations that govern drug approval. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
Reporting Correlation and Regression Analyses (RR/G/SG)
Workshop participants will learn how to interpret and report correlation and regression analyses. Most of the workshop will be devoted to correlation and simple linear regression analysis. Suitable for new and experienced medical writers and editors, the workshop approaches the topics conceptually, not mathematically. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Summarizing Clinical Efficacy Data for a New Drug Application (RR) 
This workshop is appropriate for regulatory/medical communicators who are moderately experienced in writing clinical regulatory documents. The teaching style will be primarily lecture with an exercise and some opportunity for discussion. The workshop leader will focus on what regulatory/medical communicators need to know to effectively write the high-level clinical safety documents required specifically by the Food and Drug Administration for US New Drug Applications (NDAs), namely the Module 220.127.116.11 Report of Integrated Efficacy Analysis (ISE) vs the Module 2.7.3 Summary of Clinical Efficacy. Associated regulations and guidelines will be discussed, as well as the source documents and other tools needed for generating these documents. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Summarizing Clinical Safety Data for a New Drug Application (RR) 
This workshop is appropriate for regulatory/medical communicators who are moderately experienced in writing clinical regulatory documents. The teaching style will be primarily lecture with an exercise and some opportunity for discussion. The workshop leader will focus on what regulatory/medical communicators need to know to effectively write the high-level clinical safety documents required specifically by the Food and Drug Administration for US New Drug Applications (NDAs), namely the Module 18.104.22.168 Report of Integrated Safety Analysis (ISS) vs the Module 2.7.4 Summary of Clinical Safety. Associated regulations and guidelines will be discussed, as well as the source documents and other tools needed for generating these documents. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Writing the Final Report of a Clinical Trial (RR/PH)
This workshop is intended for novices and moderately experienced medical writers; the leader will offer approaches to generating a clinical study report. The components of the report, issues of quality control, and common problems and situations will be covered. Within this framework, ideal and real-world experiences will be discussed. The impact of guidelines from the International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) and their effect on the standard report structure will be discussed in detail. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 4 HOURS.
Writing the Investigator Brochure (RR/PH)
Previously offered as a noncredit workshop, this workshop is intended for moderately experienced to advanced writers in the pharmaceutical industry who want to improve their understanding of the investigator brochure (IB). The workshop leader will focus on the regulatory and informational needs of the audience and how to use best practices to communicate information on the drug. Relevant regulations will be reviewed, and required topics discussed. The evolution of the IB from phase 1 to phase 4 will be elucidated. In a group exercise, an IB based on the homework will be critiqued. A discussion will focus on how to prepare an IB using subject matter experts. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
Advanced Data Presentation: Tables, Graphs, and Charts (ADV)
This workshop is intended for medical writers and editors who have at least a moderate degree of experience working with graphical displays of data. The leader will emphasize group participation in exploring solutions to graphic problems submitted by participants. Other means of portraying information, such as flow charts and box and whisker plots, also will be discussed. For background knowledge, it is highly recommended that registrants have previously taken Tables and Graphs and Statistics for Medical Writers and Editors, and either Basics of Epidemiology or Interventional and Observational Research Design (previously titled Biomedical Research Design). APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–5 HOURS.
Advanced Writing (ADV)
With a focus on writing as a cognitive, problem-solving process, this workshop will emphasize goals, writing strategies you can use to reach these goals, and methods for overcoming blocks to productive writing. We will also discuss the importance of rewriting and editing to the writing process. The workshop will combine lecture and discussion, but individual work will not be critiqued during the workshop. To register for this workshop, it is recommended that you have at least 5 years' experience in editing or writing. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2–3 HOURS.
Computer Searching the Medical Literature (ADV)
This advanced workshop is designed for medical communicators who wish to investigate effective strategies for accessing online informational health resources. A team approach will be used to review online assignments in class. Discussion will focus on selection of appropriate databases and on optimal searching techniques. Topics will also include selecting an online database vendor, Internet sources, and the continued development of online informational resources. To register for this workshop, it is recommended that you have already taken Bibliographic Resources for Medical Communicators or equivalent experience. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Critical Appraisal for Writers and Editors of Biomedical Research Articles (ADV)[Course #726]
This workshop is intended for advanced medical writers and editors who want to improve their skills in critically appraising biomedical research or to improve their ability to think critically. The presentation and discussions will evolve around 13 questions and related concerns about the justification, design, execution, analysis, and interpretation of biomedical research studies. The precourse assignment consists of reading several abstracts and then asking questions raised by presence or absence of the information in the abstract. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–4 HOURS.
Current Trends in Drug Regulations (ADV)
Mounting pressure to reduce the cost of drugs, recent publicity surrounding NSAIDs and cardiovascular risk, and the public demand for pharmaceutical companies to fully disclose clinical trial results are changing the regulatory landscape. In Europe, the ascension of 10 new member states, implementation of the Clinical Trial Directive, and the approach of the remaining New Medicines Legislation require global companies to redesign many of their regulatory and drug development processes. This advanced workshop, designed for experienced writers who are familiar with the regulatory aspects of drug development, provides an overview of these and other recent regulatory changes. Participants will discuss how they and their companies have been affected by these developments. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Current Trends in Print and Electronic Publishing (ADV)
Editorial management, desktop publishing, and the latest in graphic arts and production technology will be topics for lively discussion in this workshop on current trends in publication production. After presentation of current and upcoming publication technologies, the group will discuss case studies submitted as homework by participants. This workshop is designed for professionals with experience in publication production. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Grant Editing (ADV)
This workshop will provide participants with an understanding of the editing concepts inherent in "grantsmanship," the strategic elements behind preparation of a successful grant application. To register for this workshop, it is recommended that you have already taken Grant Writing: NIH and Non-NIH Research Options and Strategies or Writing and Editing NIH Grants, or have 3 years' experience in editing grant applications. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
The IND in eCTD Format (ADV)
The FDA is encouraging industry sponsors to use the electronic Common Technical Document (eCTD) format for multiple submission types, including the Investigational New Drug (IND) application. This workshop will describe the acceptable IND-submission formats, how to map traditional IND documents into the modular structure of the CTD, and the benefits of submitting the IND in eCTD format. Technical requirements of the eCTD and their impact on medical writing processes and subsequent submissions will also be discussed. To register for this workshop, it is recommended that you have already taken Electronic Common Technical Document, Electronic Regulatory Submissions, Building an NDA, and Investigational New Drug Applications. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 1.5–3 HOURS.
This workshop is for experienced editors. Participants will analyze the content and organization of a complete manuscript as a precourse exercise; during the workshop, participants will compare their skills with those of other experienced manuscript editors by reviewing the exercise together and learning about the art of macroediting. To register for this workshop, it is recommended that you have already taken Effective Paragraphing, Writing Abstracts, Tables and Graphs, and Organizing the Medical Paper, or at least 3 years' experience in macroediting. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3–5 HOURS.
Microediting (ADV) 
Participants will sharpen their microediting skills by reviewing an assignment completed before the workshop and discussing the art of microediting as it relates to the preparation of manuscripts for medical journals. Organization of manuscripts will not be discussed (this topic is covered in Macroediting). To register for this workshop, it is recommended that you have already taken English Usage and Abusage, Punctuation for Clarity and Style, Sentence Structure and Patterns, and Tables and Graphs, or have at least 3 years' experience in manuscript editing. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 6 HOURS.
Reporting Randomized Trials in Science Journals (ADV)
This workshop is designed for experienced medical writers who want to report clinical research studies with a high degree of sophistication. The form and function of each component of the research article will be reviewed; however, emphasis will be placed on how to report all aspects of randomized controlled clinical trials. Participants will practice applying a set of detailed guidelines for reporting specific aspects of study design, research activities, and outcomes. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Rhetorical Grammar (ADV)
Building on knowledge gained from other AMWA workshops, participants in this workshop will examine the effects on readers of writers' and editors' choices about sentence structure and word order—that is, the rhetorical effects of grammar. Using examples from medical and scientific writing, participants will focus on the "contracts" that they establish with their readers and the results of their successes or failures in fulfilling these contracts. The goal will be to focus on reader-centered rather than writer-centered prose. To register for this workshop, it is recommended that you have already taken Sentence Structure and Patterns or Basic Grammar & Usage or both Basic Grammar I and Basic Grammar II & Usage. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Risks and Ratios (ADV)
How much bigger is one number than another? How can we communicate these quantitative differences unambiguously? This course is for writers and editors who are familiar with basic biostatistics and clinical or environmental research and who want to improve their understanding of the topic. We will focus on percentage increase and decrease, the "-fold problem," and relative risks, odds ratios, and the relationship between them. We'll also cover absolute risk difference (or attributable risk) and number-needed-to-treat. Throughout, we will emphasize how to communicate risks and ratios to lay and professional audiences. To register for this workshop, it is recommended that you have already taken Statistics for Medical Writers and Editors. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 1.5 HOURS.
Semantic Analysis of Medical Writing (ADV)
This workshop is a companion to Syntactic Analysis of Medical Writing, but at the level of the word. The workshop will be based on a compilation of semantic writing distractions organized by the workshop leader using a submitted sample of personal vocational writing or copyediting from each workshop registrant. The workshop format will consist of a generic explanation by the workshop leader of the purpose and nature of a taxonomic analysis followed by registrants' preparation (in pairs), and presentation (by individuals) to the entire group, of an assigned distraction, examples of which are shared by one or more of the registrants. This is not a "one-size-fits-all" workshop; it is developed from the specific needs of every registrant. (Previously titled Distracting Word Usage: Taxonomy and Revision.) APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2-3 HOURS.
Strategies for Improving Document Quality for Pharmaceutical Communication Managers(ADV)
Improving the process of document preparation is crucial for medical writers. Discussion will include mechanisms for enhancing quality and accountability and for ensuring adequate time allowances. These are organizational issues around which a medical writing group can build policies aimed at ensuring a higher degree of accountability among those with whom they work and upon whose input they depend. This workshop is suggested for experienced medical writers who either are in a supervisory role or will soon be taking on that responsibility. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2 HOURS.
Synergy of Style, Substance, and Audience (ADV)
This workshop is for experienced wordsmiths who wish to participate in a group discussion about what constitutes style in science writing. As participants consider elements of style in various sample manuscripts, they will also determine how to modify style to make material more effective for different target audiences. Throughout the workshop, the combined effects of substance and style will be covered in discussion and problem-solving units. To register for this workshop, it is recommended that you have already taken Effective Paragraphing and Organizing the Medical Paper or have at least 5 years' experience as the primary author or substantive editor of medical manuscripts. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 6 HOURS.
Syntactic Analysis of Medical Writing (ADV) 
This workshop is a companion workshop to Semantic Analysis of Medical Writing, but at the level of the sentence. The workshop will be based on a compilation of syntactic writing distractions (ie, verbiage, sensory distraction, nonprofessional tone, meaning distraction). These distractions will be organized by the workshop leader, using a submitted sample of personal vocational writing or copyediting from each workshop registrant. The workshop format will consist of a generic explanation by the workshop leader of the purpose and nature of a taxonomic analysis, followed by registrants' preparation (in pairs) and presentation (by individuals) to the entire group, of an assigned distraction, examples of which are shared by one or more of the registrants. This is not a "one-size-fits-all" workshop; it is developed from the specific needs of every registrant. (Previously titled Matching Syntax to Rhetorical Intent.) APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 2-3 HOURS.
Teaching Techniques: Theory and Practice (ADV)
Through discussion of written scenarios and personal situations, participants will explore the principles of designing courses and course materials, giving lectures, leading discussions, and using audiovisual aids. The teaching of medical writing will be emphasized. This workshop is limited to experienced communicators. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 4 HOURS.
Understanding and Reporting the Performance Characteristics of Diagnostic Tests (ADV)
This workshop, designed for experienced medical writers and editors, teaches how to interpret and report diagnostic tests in the medical literature. Participants will practice applying a set of detailed guidelines for reporting various test characteristics. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
Understanding Sample Size and Study Power (ADV)
This workshop is intended for writers and editors who are familiar with basic biostatistics and research methods and who want to improve their understanding of and ability to communicate about sample size and study power. Various factors will be explored, particularly sample size and the influence of a study's "power"—the ability to detect a measured and statistically significant effect. The workshop leader will also examine the role that precision and confidence intervals play in interpreting and reporting a study's power. These concepts will be addressed from the vantage points of planning studies and of interpreting and assessing completed studies. The workshop leader will emphasize effectively communicating the related concepts to lay and professional audiences. It is recommended that participants have previously taken Statistics for Medical Writers and Editors and Basics of Epidemiology for Medical Communicators, and/or Interventional and Observational Research Design (previously Biomedical Research Design). Participants would also benefit from having taken Risks and Ratios. APPROXIMATE HOMEWORK TIME: 3 HOURS.
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